Research on student learning has undergone many changes in the last decade. In particular, the research methodology has advanced in many different ways on the level of complexity of data collection and rigor of data analyses. In the quantitative research perspective, many off-line and online measures and statistical analysis techniques have been further meticulously developed. In the qualitative research perspective, a broader range of data collection tools are applied. Also the use of mixed method data analysis is increasing. Although in some research strands on student learning, the mono method approach of quantitative research is still ‘the golden rule’, in other research strands we notify more methodological creativity in mixing research paradigms and designs which can be very fruitful advancements for further knowledge development. In this book we focus on the domain of research on learning patterns in which these methodological shifts are in rapid evolution. A variety of international research cases illustrating current practices of empirical research, is presented showing how different methods of research on student learning can be applied and be useful for future research. Benefits an boundaries of the research methods are critically discussed and future perspectives are proposed.