This book focuses on the diverse impact of forest history in general, and of forest continuity, fragmentation and past management in particular, on the diversity and distribution of species. The implications for the conservation of biodiversity in forests are also addressed. Chapters have been developed from papers presented at a conference held in Leuven in January 2003. The emphasis is on temperate forests in Europe and North America, but the information may also be applicable to other regions or biomes. The book will be of significant interest to researchers working within the areas of forestry, ecology, conservation and environmental history.