Recently, much progress has been made with echocardiography and Doppler techniques and these ultrasound methods have grown in importance and reliability as non-invasive diagnostic procedures for many cardiovascular disorders. The objective of this t~xtbook is to offer a detailed yet concise overview of the echocardiographic diagnosis of the various cardiovascular diseases. The book focuses upon the practical echocardiographic (including Doppler) exam ination. Accordingly, the fundamental principles of echocardiography and the Doppler techniques (pulsed and continuous wave and color flow mapping are covered briefly but comprehensively). A copious amount of representative figures and illustrations is included so that the reader is able to understand the clinical application of each modality in the various cardiovascular pathologies and the echocardiographic diagnosis. In keeping with the concept of an integrated echocardiographic examination, the two-dimensional, M-mode and Doppler echocardiographic findings are included in many of the diseases. Usually, the echocardiographic examination is approached first by two-dimensional imag ing to give an understanding of the anatomical correlations, if necessary adding M-mode to clarify the time course of intracardiac movements, and secondly by each Doppler technique to evaluate the hemodynamic conditions. When familiar with these approaches, one can make not only the diagnosis of many cardiovascular diseases with echocardiography alone, but also the rational and expeditious management of patients. Today, some of the cardiac diseases (Atrial Myxoma, Atrial Septal Defect, Infective endocarditis and so forth) have been oper ated based only on echocardiographic findings.