Tom Paine's 'Agrarian Justice' (1797) continues to inspire progressive politicians today as a source of two contemporary policies, Land Value Taxation and Universal (Basic) Income (Citizen's Income). His starting point was the belief, widespread until the end of the eighteenth century, that the Earth is the common property of humankind. Rather than advocating the common ownership of land, he proposed that landowners 'owe to the community a ground-rent', the market rent of their land. He advocated that this be paid into a fund to be used for the benefit of all, both as a lump sum payment on reaching adulthood and as a pension for older people. He is well worth reading for his passion and rhetoric. This publication also includes a riposte written in the same year by Thomas Spence, who had published a similar but more radical proposal in 1776. It also contains a 20th century re-statement of individual and common rights to the Earth and a summary of the relevance of Agrarian Justice today.